Blue-Action scientists ensure that electronic copies of peer-reviewed scientific publications become freely available to anyone as soon as possible and in all cases no later than six months after publication

To see all presentations, posters, articles, and reports related to Blue-Action, please look at our Open-Access community in Zenodo.


Publications Acknowledging Blue-Action in 2020


Achebak, H., Devolder, D., Ingole, V. (2020) Reversal of the seasonality of temperature-attributable mortality from respiratory diseases in Spain. Nat Commun 11, 2457. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16273-x  

Abstract: A growing number of epidemiological studies have recently assessed temporal variations in vulnerability and/or mortality attributable to hot and cold temperatures. However, the eventual changes in the seasonal distribution of temperature-attributable mortality remain unexplored. Here, we analyse countrywide daily time-series of temperature and mortality counts from respiratory diseases by sex, age group and province of residence during the period 1980–2016 in Spain. We show the complete reversal of the seasonality of temperature-attributable mortality, with a significant shift of the maximum monthly incidence from winter to summer, and the minimum monthly incidence from early and late summer to winter. The reversal in the seasonal distribution of the attributable deaths is not driven by the observed warming in both winter and summer temperatures, but rather by the very large decrease in the risk of death due to cold temperatures and the relatively much smaller reduction due to hot temperatures. We conclude that the projected decrease in the number of moderate and extreme cold days due to climate warming will not contribute to a further reduction of cold-attributable respiratory deaths.


Afargan‐Gerstman, H., & Domeisen, D. I. (2020). Pacific modulation of the North Atlantic storm track response to sudden stratospheric warming events. Geophysical Research Letters, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019GL085007

Abstract: The stratosphere, the layer of the atmosphere starting at about 10 km above the Earth's surface, can have a major impact on surface weather in winter, in particular during stratospheric extreme events, known as sudden stratospheric warmings. The tropospheric response is strongest in the North Atlantic and Europe; however, not all events exhibit the same surface response, which remains a major open research question. Here, we analyze the changes in surface weather after 26 sudden stratospheric warming events. We identify two types of responses: For two thirds of the events, the effect of the stratosphere leads to a southward shift of the westerly jet in the Atlantic and an eastward extension in the Pacific. For the remaining one third of events, sudden stratospheric warmings are associated with a northward shift of the jet in both basins. We find that the anomalous weather patterns in the Pacific may contribute to the sign of the Atlantic response by propagation of synoptic storms from the East Pacific toward the Atlantic. The results of this study can potentially improve the understanding of the coupling between the stratosphere and surface weather and help to extend weather prediction timescales.


Athanasiadis, P.J., Yeager, S., Kwon, Y. (2020) Decadal predictability of North Atlantic blocking and the NAO. npj Clim Atmos Sci 3, 20. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41612-020-0120-6 

Abstract: Can multi-annual variations in the frequency of North Atlantic atmospheric blocking and mid-latitude circulation regimes be skilfully predicted? Recent advances in seasonal forecasting have shown that mid-latitude climate variability does exhibit significant predictability. However, atmospheric predictability has generally been found to be quite limited on multi-annual timescales. New decadal prediction experiments from NCAR are found to exhibit remarkable skill in reproducing the observed multi-annual variations of wintertime blocking frequency over the North Atlantic and of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) itself. This is partly due to the large ensemble size that allows the predictable component of the atmospheric variability to emerge from the background chaotic component. The predictable atmospheric anomalies represent a forced response to oceanic low-frequency variability that strongly resembles the Atlantic Multi-decadal Variability (AMV), correctly reproduced in the decadal hindcasts thanks to realistic ocean initialization and ocean dynamics. The occurrence of blocking in certain areas of the Euro-Atlantic domain determines the concurrent circulation regime and the phase of known teleconnections, such as the NAO, consequently affecting the stormtrack and the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. Therefore, skilfully predicting the decadal fluctuations of blocking frequency and the NAO may be used in statistical predictions of near-term climate anomalies, and it provides a strong indication that impactful climate anomalies may also be predictable with improved dynamical models.


Bryden, Harry; King, Brian; McCarthy, Gerard D.; McDonagh, Elaine; Moat, Ben; Smeed, David (2020) Reduction in ocean heat transport at 26°N since 2008 cools the eastern subpolar gyre of the North Atlantic Ocean. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0323.1 

Abstract: Northward ocean heat transport at 26°N in the Atlantic Ocean has been measured since 2004. The ocean heat transport is large—approximately 1.25 PW, and on interannual time scales it exhibits surprisingly large temporal variability. There has been a long-term reduction in ocean heat transport of 0.17 PW from 1.32 PW before 2009 to 1.15 PW after 2009 (2009–16) on an annual average basis associated with a 2.5-Sv (1 Sv ≡ 106 m3 s−1) drop in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). The reduction in the AMOC has cooled and freshened the upper ocean north of 26°N over an area following the offshore edge of the Gulf Stream/North Atlantic Current from the Bahamas to Iceland. Cooling peaks south of Iceland where surface temperatures are as much as 2°C cooler in 2016 than they were in 2008. Heat uptake by the atmosphere appears to have been affected particularly along the path of the North Atlantic Current. For the reduction in ocean heat transport, changes in ocean heat content account for about one-quarter of the long-term reduction in ocean heat transport while reduced heat uptake by the atmosphere appears to account for the remainder of the change in ocean heat transport.


Hirschi, J.J.M., Barnier, B., Böning, C., Biastoch, A., Blaker, A.T., Coward, A., Danilov, S., Drijfhout, S., Getzlaff, K., Griffies, S.M. and Hasumi, H. (2020). The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation in high resolution models. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JC015522

Abstract: Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) represents the zonally integrated stream function of meridional volume transport in the Atlantic Basin. The AMOC plays an important role in transporting heat meridionally in the climate system. Observations suggest a heat transport by the AMOC of 1.3 PW at 26°N ‐ a latitude which is close to where the Atlantic northward heat transport is thought to reach its maximum. This shapes the climate of the North Atlantic region as we know it today. In recent years there has been significant progress both in our ability to observe the AMOC in nature and to simulate it in numerical models. Most previous modeling investigations of the AMOC and its impact on climate have relied on models with horizontal resolution that does not resolve ocean mesoscale eddies and the dynamics of the Gulf Stream/North Atlantic Current system. As a result of recent increases in computing power, models are now being run that are able to represent mesoscale ocean dynamics and the circulation features that rely on them. The aim of this review is to describe new insights into the AMOC provided by high‐resolution models. Furthermore, we will describe how high‐resolution model simulations can help resolve outstanding challenges in our understanding of the AMOC.


Holliday, N. P., Bersch, M., Berx, B., Chafik, L., Cunningham, S., Florindo-López, C., ... & Mulet, S. (2020). Ocean circulation causes the largest freshening event for 120 years in eastern subpolar North Atlantic. Nature communications, 11(1), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-14474-y

Abstract:The Atlantic Ocean overturning circulation is important to the climate system because it carries heat and carbon northward, and from the surface to the deep ocean. The high salinity of the subpolar North Atlantic is a prerequisite for overturning circulation, and strong freshening could herald a slowdown. We show that the eastern subpolar North Atlantic underwent extreme freshening during 2012 to 2016, with a magnitude never seen before in 120 years of measurements. The cause was unusual winter wind patterns driving major changes in ocean circulation, including slowing of the North Atlantic Current and diversion of Arctic freshwater from the western boundary into the eastern basins. We find that wind-driven routing of Arctic-origin freshwater intimately links conditions on the North West Atlantic shelf and slope region with the eastern subpolar basins. This reveals the importance of atmospheric forcing of intra-basin circulation in determining the salinity of the subpolar North Atlantic.


Koul, V., Tesdal, J. E., Bersch, M., Hátún, H., Brune, S., Borchert, L., ... & Baehr, J. (2020). Unraveling the choice of the north Atlantic subpolar gyre index. Nature Scientific Reports, 10(1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-57790-5

Abstract: The north Atlantic subpolar gyre (SPG) has been widely implicated as the source of large-scale changes in the subpolar marine environment. However, inconsistencies between indices of SPG-strength have raised questions about the active role SPG-strength and size play in determining water properties in the eastern subpolar North Atlantic (ENA). Here, by analyzing various SPG indices derived from observations and a global coupled model, we show that the choice of the SPG index dictates the interpretation of SPG strength-salinity relationship in the ENA. Variability in geostrophic currents derived from observed hydrography and model based Lagrangian trajectories reveal zonal shifts of advective pathways in the ENA and meridional shifts in the western intergyre region. Such shifts in advective pathways are manifestations of variability in the size and strength of the SPG, and they impact salinity by modulating the proportion of subpolar and subtropical waters reaching the ENA. SPG indices based on subsurface density and principal component analysis of sea surface height variability capture these shifts in advective pathways, and are therefore best suited to describe SPG-salinity relationship in the ENA. Our results establish the dynamical constraints on the choice of the SPG index and emphasize that SPG indices should be cautiously interpreted.


Le Bras, I. A., Straneo, F., Holte, J., de Jong, M. F., & Holliday, N. P. (2020). Rapid export of waters formed by convection near the Irminger Sea's western boundary. Geophysical Research Letters, 47(3), https://doi.org/10.1029/2019GL085989. 

Abstract: The deep ocean can regulate the Earth's climate by storing carbon and heat. At high latitudes, waters are cooled by the atmosphere and sink, but they can only be successfully stored in the deep ocean if they are exported toward the equator. In this study, we analyze new mooring observations in the Irminger Sea to investigate the cooling and export of high‐latitude waters. In addition to the well‐documented waters that are cooled in the center of the Irminger Sea, we find that saltier waters are cooled near the western boundary current. Both of these water types make it into boundary current and are exported. Our observations are consistent with the dynamics of swirling eddy motions. The eddy transport process is more effective for the waters cooled near the boundary current, implying that cooling near boundary currents may be more important for the climate than has been appreciated to date.


Liang, Y. C., Kwon, Y. O., Frankignoul, C., Danabasoglu, G., Yeager, S., Cherchi, A., ... & Mecking, J. V. (2020). Quantification of the Arctic sea ice‐driven atmospheric circulation variability in coordinated large ensemble simulations. Geophysical Research Letters, 47(1), https://doi.org/10.1029/2019GL085397 

Abstract: Changing Arctic sea ice conditions since the late 1970s have exerted profound impacts on environment and ecosystem at the high latitudes and have been suggested to affect midlatitude weather and climate, although this topic has been controversial. In order to improve our understanding on how Arctic sea ice changes influence local and remote weather and climate, a coordinated set of experiments has been performed using various state‐of‐the‐art atmosphere‐only models to study the linkages between the Arctic climate change and lower latitudes. This study uses seven models following a common experimental protocol to investigate the atmospheric circulation changes forced by Arctic sea ice variability. The protocol allows the Arctic sea ice‐driven variability (SIDV) to be singled out. In boreal winter, the Arctic SIDV is ~0.18 hPa2 and accounts for only ~1.5% of the total variance for sea level pressure, while it is ~0.35 K2 and accounts for ~21% for surface air temperature. The results also suggest that using insufficient ensembles always leads to an overestimation of SIDV, and more than 100 and 40 ensemble members are needed for sea level pressure and surface air temperature within the Arctic, respectively, to separate the SIDV from the variability due to other factors, primarily the atmospheric internal variability.


Liu, Y., Attema, J., Moat, B., & Hazeleger, W. (2020). Synthesis and evaluation of historical meridional heat transport from midlatitudes towards the Arctic. Earth System Dynamics, 11(1), 77-96. https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-11-77-2020

Abstract: Meridional energy transport (MET), both in the atmosphere (AMET) and ocean (OMET), has significant impact on the climate in the Arctic. In this study, we quantify AMET and OMET at subpolar latitudes from six reanalysis data sets. We investigate the differences between the data sets and we check the coherence between MET and the Arctic climate variability at interannual timescales. The results indicate that, although the mean transport in all data sets agrees well, the spatial distributions and temporal variations of AMET and OMET differ substantially among the reanalysis data sets. For the ocean, only after 2007, the low-frequency signals in all reanalysis products agree well. A further comparison with observed heat transport at 26.5 N and the subpolar Atlantic, and a high-resolution ocean model hindcast confirms that the OMET estimated from the reanalysis data sets are consistent with the observations. For the atmosphere, the differences between ERA-Interim and the Japanese 55-year Reanalysis (JRA-55) are small, while the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications version 2 (MERRA-2) differs from them. An extended analysis of linkages between Arctic climate variability and AMET shows that atmospheric reanalyses differ substantially from each other. Among the chosen atmospheric products, ERA-Interim and JRA-55 results are most consistent with those from coupled climate models. For the ocean, the Ocean Reanalysis System 4 (ORAS4) and Simple Ocean Data Assimilation version 3 (SODA3) agree well on the relation between OMET and sea ice concentration (SIC), while the GLobal Ocean reanalyses and Simulations version 3 (GLORYS2V3) deviates from those data sets. The regressions of multiple fields in the Arctic on both AMET and OMET suggest that the Arctic climate is sensitive to changes of meridional energy transport at subpolar latitudes in winter. Given the good agreement on the diagnostics among assessed reanalysis products, our study suggests that the reanalysis products are useful for the evaluation of energy transport. However, assessments of products with the AMET and OMET estimated from reanalysis data sets beyond interannual timescales should be conducted with great care and the robustness of results should be evaluated through intercomparison, especially when studying variability and interactions between the Arctic and midlatitudes.


McCarthy, G. D., Brown, P. J., Flagg, C. N., Goni, G., Houpert, L., Hughes, C. W., ... & Lherminier, P. (2020). Sustainable observations of the AMOC: Methodology and Technology. Reviews of Geophysics, 58(1). https://doi.org/10.1029/2019RG000654  

Abstract: The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is a system of ocean currents (sometimes known as the Gulf Stream System or the Great Ocean Conveyor Belt) that is important because of how it moves heat and carbon around the planet. Due to human‐induced climate change, the AMOC is predicted to weaken substantially, with adverse impacts for regions dependent on the supply of warmth from the AMOC, including northwest Europe. Surprisingly, given its importance, the AMOC has only been directly measured for the last decade or so. We now have observation systems in place that can verify a future decline in the AMOC, if it happens. In this paper we review these observation systems in terms of the technology and methodology used. We look at how these systems might develop in the future, including covering any gaps that might exist, and consider how they might fit in an integrated and optimized Atlantic observing system.


Müller, W. A., Borchert, L., & Ghosh, R. (2020). Observed subdecadal variations of European summer temperatures. Geophysical Research Letters, 47(1). https://doi.org/10.1029/2019GL086043

Abstract: We identify subdecadal variations in European summer temperatures in coupled and uncoupled century‐long reanalyses. Spectral analyses reveal significant peaks at 5–10 years in the midtwentieth century. The subdecadal variations show substantial amplitudes of ~1–1.5 °C, associated with extremely warm summers during their positive phases. We use forced ocean model experiments and show that the European summer temperature variations are associated with the subdecadal coupled North Atlantic climate system. A positive winter NAO‐like forcing is associated with changes in the ocean circulation and mass and heat convergence occurring 1–2 years prior to European summer temperature rise. Ocean heat content and sea surface temperature increase in the subtropical North Atlantic. The atmospheric response is barotropic and induces wave activity fluxes toward the European continent, modulation of the jet positions, and blocking frequency. The atmospheric response establishes a pathway connecting the subdecadal coupled North Atlantic climate system to European summer temperature.

Previous Publications Acknowledging Blue-Action


Achebak, H., Devolder, D., & Ballester, J. (2019). Sex-age trends in heat-and cold-related mortality from cardiovascular diseases in a warming climate: A nationwide time-series study from Spain. Environmental Epidemiology, 3, 21. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.EE9.0000605840.55404.f5

 

Årthun, M., Eldevik, T., & Smedsrud, L. H. (2019). The role of Atlantic heat transport in future Arctic winter sea ice loss. Journal of Climate, 32(11), 3327-3341. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0750.1

 

Asbjørnsen, H., Årthun, M., Skagseth, Ø., & Eldevik, T. (2019). Mechanisms of ocean heat anomalies in the Norwegian Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124(4), 2908-2923. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JC014649

 

Ballester, J., Robine, J. M., Herrmann, F. R., & Rodó, X. (2019). Effect of the Great Recession on regional mortality trends in Europe. Nature communications, 10(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-08539-w

 

Dai, Y., & Tan, B. (2019). On the Role of the Eastern Pacific Teleconnection in ENSO Impacts on Wintertime Weather over East Asia and North America. Journal of Climate, 32(4), 1217-1234. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0789.1

 

Dai, Y., & Tan, B. (2019). Two Types of the Western Pacific Pattern, Their Climate Impacts, and the ENSO Modulations. Journal of Climate, 32(3), 823-841. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0618.1

 

Eliasen, S. K., Hátún, H., Larsen, K. M. H., Vang, H. B. M., & Rasmussen, T. A. S. (2019). The Faroe shelf spring bloom onset explained by a ‘Critical Volume Hypothesis’. Journal of Marine Systems, 194, 91-101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2019.02.005

 

Frajka-Williams, E., Ansorge, I. J., Baehr, J., Bryden, H. L., Chidichimo, M. P., Cunningham, S. A., ... & Holliday, N. P. (2019). Atlantic meridional overturning circulation: observed transports and variability. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6, 260 https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00260

 

Gálfi, V. M., Lucarini, V., & Wouters, J. (2019). A large deviation theory-based analysis of heat waves and cold spells in a simplified model of the general circulation of the atmosphere. Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment, 2019(3), 033404. https://doi.org/10.1088%2F1742-5468%2Fab02e8

 

Hallam, S., Marsh, R., Josey, S. A., Hyder, P., Moat, B., & Hirschi, J. J. M. (2019). Ocean precursors to the extreme Atlantic 2017 hurricane season. Nature communications, 10(1), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-08496-4

 

Heuzé, C., & Årthun, M. (2019). The Atlantic inflow across the Greenland-Scotland ridge in global climate models (CMIP5). Elem Sci Anth, 7(1). http://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.354

 

Josey, S. A., De Jong, M. F., Oltmanns, M., Moore, G. K., & Weller, R. A. (2019). Extreme variability in Irminger Sea winter heat loss revealed by ocean observatories initiative mooring and the ERA5 reanalysis. Geophysical Research Letters, 46(1), 293-302. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GL080956

 

Kimmritz, M., Counillon, F., Smedsrud, L. H., Bethke, I., Keenlyside, N., Ogawa, F., & Wang, Y. (2019). Impact of Ocean and Sea Ice Initialisation On Seasonal Prediction Skill in the Arctic. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019MS001825

 

Kolstad, E. W., & Screen, J. A. (2019). Nonstationary relationship between autumn Arctic sea ice and the winter North Atlantic oscillation. Geophysical Research Letters, 46(13), 7583-7591. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019GL083059

 

Kolstad, E. W., & Screen, J. A. (2019). Nonstationary relationship between autumn Arctic sea ice and the winter North Atlantic oscillation. Geophysical Research Letters, 46(13), 7583-7591. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019GL083059

 

Kolstad, E. W., Sofienlund, O. N., Kvamsås, H., Stiller-Reeve, M. A., Neby, S., Paasche, Ø., ... & Omdahl, L. (2019). Trials, Errors, and Improvements in Coproduction of Climate Services. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 100(8), 1419-1428. https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-18-0201.1

 

Kristiansen, I., Hatun, H., Petursdottir, H., Gislason, A., Broms, C., Melle, W., ... & Gaard, E. (2019). Decreased influx of Calanus spp. into the south-western Norwegian Sea since 2003. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 149, 103048. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2019.05.008

 

Kuznetsov, A. V., Nikitina, E. N., & Baronina, Y. A. (2019). The Changing Arctic: Vision of Prospecs for Sustainable Development of Northern Regions. Mirovaia ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniia, 63(9), 112-117. https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2019-63-9-112-117

 

Langehaug, H. R., Sandø, A. B., Årthun, M., & Ilıcak, M. (2019). Variability along the Atlantic water pathway in the forced Norwegian Earth System Model. Climate dynamics, 52(1-2), 1211-1230. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-018-4184-5

 

Lembo, V., Messori, G., Graversen, R., & Lucarini, V. (2019). Spectral decomposition and extremes of atmospheric meridional energy transport in the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes. Geophysical Research Letters, 46(13), 7602-7613. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019GL082105

 

Little, C. M., Hu, A., Hughes, C. W., McCarthy, G. D., Piecuch, C. G., Ponte, R. M., & Thomas, M. D. (2019). The relationship between US east coast sea level and the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation: A review. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124(9), 6435-6458. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JC015152

 

Lozier, M. S., Li, F., Bacon, S., Bahr, F., Bower, A. S., Cunningham, S. A., ... & Gary, S. F. (2019). A sea change in our view of overturning in the subpolar North Atlantic. Science, 363(6426), 516-521. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aau6592

 

Mecking, J. V., Drijfhout, S. S., Hirschi, J. J., & Blaker, A. T. (2019). Ocean and atmosphere influence on the 2015 European heatwave. Environmental Research Letters, 14(11), 114035. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/ab4d33

 

Moat, B. I., Sinha, B., Josey, S. A., Robson, J., Ortega, P., Sévellec, F., ... & Hirschi, J. M. (2019). Insights into decadal North Atlantic sea surface temperature and ocean heat content variability from an eddy-permitting coupled climate model. Journal of Climate, 32(18), 6137-6161. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0709.1

 

Østerhus, S., Woodgate, R., Valdimarsson, H., Turrell, B., de Steur, L., Quadfasel, D., ... & Jónsson, S. (2019). Arctic Mediterranean exchanges: a consistent volume budget and trends in transports from two decades of observations. https://doi.org/10.5194/os-15-379-2019

 

Petrova, D., Lowe, R., Stewart-Ibarra, A., Ballester, J., Koopman, S. J., & Rodó, X. (2019). Sensitivity of large dengue epidemics in Ecuador to long-lead predictions of El Niño. Climate Services, 15, 100096. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cliser.2019.02.003

 

Ruggieri, P., Kucharski, F., & Novak, L. (2019). The Response of the Midlatitude Jet to Regional Polar Heating in a Simple Storm-Track Model. Journal of Climate, 32(10), 2869-2885. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0257.1

 

Ruti, P., Tarasova, O., Keller, J., Carmichael, G., Hov, Ø., Jones, S., ... & Bouchet, V. (2019). Advancing Research for Seamless Earth System Prediction. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, (2019). https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-17-0302.1

 

Swingedouw, D., Colin, C., Eynaud, F., Ayache, M., & Zaragosi, S. (2019). Impact of freshwater release in the Mediterranean Sea on the North Atlantic climate. Climate Dynamics, 53(7-8), 3893-3915. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-019-04758-5

 

van der Linden, E. C., Le Bars, D., Bintanja, R., & Hazeleger, W. (2019). Oceanic heat transport into the Arctic under high and low forcing. Climate Dynamics, 53(7-8), 4763-4780. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-019-04824-y

 

Worthington, E. L., FrajkaWilliams, E., & McCarthy, G. D. (2019). Estimating the deep overturning transport variability at 26 N using bottom pressure recorders. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124(1), 335-348. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JC014221

 

Achebak, H., Devolder, D., & Ballester, J. (2018). Heat-related mortality trends under recent climate warming in Spain: A 36-year observational study. PLoS medicine, 15(7). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002617

 

Årthun, M., Bogstad, B., Daewel, U., Keenlyside, N. S., Sandø, A. B., Schrum, C., & Ottersen, G. (2018). Climate based multi-year predictions of the Barents Sea cod stock. PloS one, 13(10). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0206319

 

Årthun, M., Kolstad, E. W., Eldevik, T., & Keenlyside, N. S. (2018). Time scales and sources of European temperature variability. Geophysical Research Letters, 45(8), 3597-3604. https://doi.org/10.1002/2018GL077401

 

Bringedal, C., Eldevik, T., Skagseth, Ø., Spall, M. A., & Østerhus, S. (2018). Structure and forcing of observed exchanges across the Greenland–Scotland Ridge. Journal of Climate, 31(24), 9881-9901. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0889.1

 

Davy, R. (2018). The climatology of the atmospheric boundary layer in contemporary global climate models. Journal of Climate, 31(22), 9151-9173. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0498.1

 

Davy, R., Chen, L., & Hanna, E. (2018). Arctic amplification metrics. International Journal of Climatology, 38(12), 4384-4394. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.5675

 

Dobrynin, M., Domeisen, D. I., Müller, W. A., Bell, L., Brune, S., Bunzel, F., ... & Baehr, J. (2018). Improved teleconnectionbased dynamical seasonal predictions of boreal winter. Geophysical Research Letters, 45(8), 3605-3614.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2018GL077209

 

de Jong, M. F., Oltmanns, M., Karstensen, J., & de Steur, L. (2018). Deep convection in the Irminger Sea observed with a dense mooring array. Oceanography, 31(1), 50-59. https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2018.109

 

Hansen, B., Larsen, K. M. H., Olsen, S. M., Quadfasel, D., Jochumsen, K., & Østerhus, S. (2018). Overflow of cold water across the Iceland–Farœ Ridge through the Western Valley. Ocean Science, 14(4), 871-885. https://doi.org/10.5194/os-14-871-2018

 

Hátún, H., & Chafik, L. (2018). On the recent ambiguity of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre index. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 123(8), 5072-5076. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JC014101

 

Holliday, N. P., Bacon, S., Cunningham, S. A., Gary, S. F., Karstensen, J., King, B. A., ... & Mcdonagh, E. L. (2018). Subpolar North Atlantic overturning and gyrescale circulation in the summers of 2014 and 2016. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 123(7), 4538-4559. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JC013841

 

Houpert, L., Inall, M. E., Dumont, E., Gary, S., Johnson, C., Porter, M., ... & Cunningham, S. A. (2018). Structure and transport of the North Atlantic Current in the eastern subpolar gyre from sustained glider observations. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 123(8), 6019-6038. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JC014162

 

Kolstad, E. W., & Årthun, M. (2018). Seasonal prediction from Arctic sea surface temperatures: Opportunities and pitfalls. Journal of Climate, 31(20), 8197-8210. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0016.1

 

Lucarini, V. (2018). Revising and extending the linear response theory for statistical mechanical systems: evaluating observables as predictors and predictands. Journal of Statistical Physics, 173(6), 1698-1721. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10955-018-2151-5

 

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